HIV- 1 and SARS-CoV-2 are two potential life threatening pathogens which are responsible for global pandemics. HIV-1 stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus which severely attacks on body’s immune system and lead to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). HIV-1 destroys CD4 cells, also known as T cells. These are white blood cells which play a significant part in immune system and fight infection. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for causing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) that has a profound consequences on every aspect of human life.
The need of the hour is to find the most appropriate and relevant therapy against these viruses, that’s why HIV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 co-action in humans has become a subject of growing research interest. Sassin, 2020 stated that global outbreak of disease is the result of digital-age globalization with huge level of cross-border relocation of people, tourist flows and migration on the scale of the entire planet without any cultural, religious, national, racial, mental or other boundaries. Neidleman et al., 2020 informed that the simultaneous effect of these two diseases eventuates in deterioration of the human immune system.
Madge et al., 2020; Okoh et al., 2020 found that HIV/SARS-CoV-2 co-infection may lead to pneumonia complications oftener than COVID-19 itself. Gao et al., 2020 said that it has been observed that HIV/SARS-CoV-2 co-infection has the ability to cause excessive T cell activation.
Konstantin S. Sharov, 2020 engage in research that has published in International Journal of Infectious Diseases. The purpose of this research was to find out if there is synergy in HIV infection and COVID-19 in their influence on human immunity, if there is an exacerbation of HIV patients’ immune status caused by SARS-CoV-2 and if HIV infection without antiretroviral therapy (ART) leads to a more serious COVID-19 course than HIV infection with ART.
The results of this study showed that HIV infection without ART may be a very serious comorbidity of COVID-19, whereas immunity of HIV/COVID-19 patients with proper ART is not generally affected by SARS-CoV-2.
To sum up everything that has been stated so far, HIV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 exhibited a synergic effect and exhausted T lymphocyte dynamics may be its effective marker.