An Indication of a Novel Growth Marker in Super Kampung Chickens

Kampung chicken or super village chicken is the result of crossing between male Bangkok chicken (local Indonesian chicken) and female layer chicken of Isa Brown strain. This chicken is Indonesian germplasm that is very geographically very supportive with the population spread almost in the whole countryside in Indonesia. These crossbred chickens have been extensively bred to fulfill the demand for raw material for traditional cuisine. The crossbred chickens have a high phenotypic polymorphism (skin color, feather color, physical shape, and shank color, and body weight) and are predicted to have high genetic polymorphism. This high polymorphism provides opportunities for the selection of poultry.

In the field of molecular biology, a transcription factor is a protein that regulates the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a precise DNA sequence.

The Pituitary Specific Transcription Factor-1 gene is one of the common markers used for the selection of poultries. Its specific functions are to reactivate prolactin (Prl) , growth hormone (GH) and thyroid-$-stimulating hormone (TSH-$) promoters. The Pit-1 gene is liable to induce differentiation of liver progenitor cells for the production of prolactin (Prl), development of the anterior hypophysis of the pituitary gland, as well as delaying adrenarche in humans.

Nie et al. (2008) found that the Pit-1 polymorphism gene is related to growth, carcass, and fatty characters in broilers and other animals. Piórkowska et al. (2013) further specified that the Pit-1 of the AA genotype of rs80904061 on intron 4 had lower feed intake than those of the AA genotype in pigs. The Pit-I of the GG genotype showed higher body weight gain compared to the AG genotype at 49 days. Conversely, the Pit-1 of the AA genotype of rs13905622 is able to grow faster at 70 days and utilize feed more efficiently compared to the AT and TT genotypes.

Jin et al. (2018) stated that the Pit-1 gene polymorphism could be used as a foundation in chicken breeding programs. A novel research was conducted by the M.H. Tamzil et al. (2021) to categorize 6 Pituitary-Specific Transcription Factor polymorphism genes and their links with a bodyweight of Super kampung chicken. The results indicated that the Pit-1 genes were diversified in Super Kampung chickens.

There were two alleles, namely T and C, and three genotypes, namely CT, CC, and TT.  They observed that the Pit-1 gene in the Super kampung chicken population was not in equilibrium. Correlations between the bodyweight of the Super Kampung chickens at 13 weeks of age and genotype of fragment genes Pit-1|TasI exon 6 have also found. The maximum bodyweight was found in the CC genotype. The researchers concluded that in Super Kampung chickens, the CC genotype of the Pit-1 gene can be used as a growth marker.

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